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Singles - Level 1 - Kingdoms

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A connection game with a difference. Link all your ringforts together (if you can) with bridges to create a magical landscape of Celtic knotwork. Split your enemy up - “Divide and Conquer” - that’s the aim. But watch out for the enemy, they may try to capture your territory - so attack, defend or sacrifice? All ages can enjoy a truly unique strategic experience!

2 Players

LAST REVISED - 12th February 2014


  • A match comprises two games, each player taking turns to start. The player with most points after two games wins the match.
  • At the end of each game the player with the fewest kingdoms receives points.
  • In case of a tie, the player with most territory receives points.


  • Sit opposite your opponent with the empty board set squarely between you.
  • Each of you takes the tiles of your chosen colour, ignoring the kings.
  • Draw lots to determine who starts.


  • Passing is not allowed.
  • Once you touch a hill you are committed.


  • Each player takes turns to build (place) one ringfort on an empty hill.
  • Each player may build their first ringfort anywhere.
  • Subsequently, your own ringforts must be built at a knight's move from any one of your own ringforts, but not any closer than a knight's move from any other friendly ringfort, figs. 1 & 2. Note that your ringforts may be built adjacent to enemy ringforts.
  • When you can no longer build a ringfort in the prescribed manner, Battle starts. At the start of such a turn, whichever player does so first must announce "BATTLE" and advances.
  • The other player too advances on their next turn, regardless of whether there are available knight's moves or not. REVISED - 12th February 2014

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fig. 1: Red to move. Ticks are legal moves but crosses are not. Crosses are too close (within a knight's move) to friendly ringforts.

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fig. 2: Red to move. Red can no longer build a ringfort using the knight's move rule, so advances to Battle.


  • The knight's move rule no longer applies. You must now build ringforts on vacant hills that are adjacent to friendly ringforts, linking them all automatically in the same turn, fig. 3.
  • Towards the end of a game you may find that there are no vacant hills to build upon which are adjacent to your own ringforts. In this case, you must start building afresh, even if it's on a besieged hill, fig. 5.

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fig. 3: Red starts Battle and must now build on hills adjacent to friendly ringforts which are marked with ticks.


  • If you besiege an isolated enemy ringfort, you must capture it on your next turn.
  • The ringfort is removed, then replaced by one of your own and linked, all in the same turn, fig. 4.
  • Capturing takes a complete turn. You must not build another ringfort in that turn.
  • Towards the end of a game, if your opponent has just built a ringfort on a besieged hill, you must capture it immediately, fig. 5.
  • Normally, you would only ever have one ringfort to capture at any one time. However, there may be cases towards the end of a game when your opponent builds on a besieged hill and you already have another ringfort to capture. You may then choose which one to capture first. You may capture only one ringfort per turn.

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fig. 4: Blue previously besieged D6 and must now capture it.

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fig. 5: Red to play. Red must start afresh on E5, but then Blue must capture it immediately.


  • If you make an illegal move and it's spotted before your opponent takes their next turn, your opponent may order you to remove that ringfort, and then replace it somewhere else of their own choosing in accordance with the rules pertaining at the time.


  • The first player to not have a legal turn calls "OUT". The other player then just has one more turn before the game ends. REVISED


  • The winner is the player with the fewest number of kingdoms. The winner scores 2 points, plus bonus points for the difference in the number of kingdoms. For example, if the outcome was 1 to 4 kingdoms, the winner would get 3 bonus points. The other player does not receive points, fig. 6.
  • If both players have the same number of kingdoms, the winner is the player with most territory. The winner scores 2 points, plus bonus points for the difference in territory. For example, if the outcome was 24 to 21 ringforts, the winner would get 3 bonus points. The other player does not receive points, fig. 7.

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fig. 6: Finished game: Red has 2 kingdoms and Blue has 3, so Red wins. Red scores 2 points (for the win) plus 1 bonus point (for the difference between 2 and 3) which equals 3 points.

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fig. 7: Finished game: both Red and Blue have 1 kingdom each, so territory must be counted. Red has 24 ringforts and Blue has 21, so Red wins. Red scores 2 points (for the win) plus 3 bonus points (for the difference between 21 and 24) which equals 5 points.

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